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超滤系统在水处理应用中的工艺


       超滤膜法在水处理及其他工业净化、浓缩、分离过程中,可以作为工艺过程的预处理,也可以作为工艺过程的深度处理。在广泛应用的水处理工艺过程中,常作为深度净化的手段。根据中空纤维超滤膜的特性,有一定的供水前处理要求。因为水中的悬浮物、胶体、微生物和其他杂质会附于膜表面,而使膜受到污染。

      YOUYUCHAOLVMOSHUITONGLIANGBIJIAODA,BEIJIELIUZAZHIZAIMOBIAOMIANSHANGDENONGDUXUNSUZENGDACHANSHENGSUOWEINONGDUJIHUAXIANXIANG,GENGWEIYANZHONGDESHIYOUYIXIEHENXIXIAODEWEILIHUIJINRUMOKONGNEIERDUSAISHUITONGDAO。LINGWAI,SHUIZHONGWEISHENGWUJIQIXINCHENDAI XIECHANWUSHENGCHENGZHANXINGWUZHIYEHUIFUZHEZAIMOBIAOMIAN。ZHEIXIEYINSUDOUHUIDAOZHICHAOLVMOTOUSHUILVDEXIAJIANGYIJIFENLIXINGNENGDEBIANHUA。TONGSHIDUICHAOLVGONGSHUIWENDU、PHZHIHENONGDUDENGYEYOUYIDINGXIANDUDEYAOQIU。 YINCIDUICHAOLVGONGSHUIBIXUJINXINGSHIDANGDEYUCHULIHEDIAOZHENGSHUIZHI,MANZUGONGSHUIYAOQIUTIAOJIAN,YIYANZHANGCHAOLVMODESHIYONGSHOUMING,JIANGDISHUICHULIDEFEIYONG。


A 、WEISHENGWU(XIJUN、ZAOLEI)DESHAMIE:

       当水中含有微生物时,在进入前处理系统后,部分被截留微生物可能粘附在前处理系统,如多介质过滤器的介质表面。当粘附在超滤膜表面时生长繁殖,可能 使微孔完全堵塞,甚至使中空纤维内腔完全堵塞。微生物的存在对中空纤维超滤膜的危害性是极为严重的。除去原水中的细菌及藻类等微生物必须重视。在水处理工 程中通常加入NaClO、O3等氧化剂,浓度一般为1~5mg/l。此外,紫外杀菌也可使用。在实验室中对中空纤维超滤膜组件进行灭菌处理,可以用双氧水(H 2 O 2)或者高锰酸钾水溶液循环处理30~60min。杀灭微生物处理仅可杀灭微生物,但并不能从水中去除微生物,仅仅防止了微生物的滋长。

B 、JIANGDIJINSHUIHUNZHUODU:

       DANGSHUIZHONGHANYOUXUANFUWU、JIAOTI、WEISHENGWUHEQITAZAZHISHI,DOUHUISHISHUICHANSHENGYIDINGCHENGDUDEHUNZHUO,GAIHUNZHUOWUDUITOUGUOGUANGXIANHUICHANSHENGZUAIZUOYONG,ZHEIZHONGGUANGXUEXIAOYINGYUZAZHIDEDUOSHAO,DAXIAOJIXINGZHUANGYOUGUANXI。HENGLIANGSHUIDEHUNZHUODUYIBANYISHIDUBIAOSHI,BINGGUIDING1mg/l,SiO2SUOCHANSHENGDEZHUODUWEI1DU,DUSHUYUEDA,SHUOMINGHANZALIANGYUEDUO。ZAIBUTONGLINGYUDUIGONGSHUIZHUODUYOUBUTONGDEYAOQIU,LIRU,DUIYIBANSHENGHUOYONGSHUI,ZHUODUBUYINGDAYU5DU。YOUYUZHUODUDECELIANGSHIBAGUANGXIANTOUGUOYUANSHUICELIANGBEISHUIZHONGKELIWUFANSHECHUDEGUANGLIANG、YANSE、BUTOUMINGXING,KELIDEDAXIAO、SHULIANGHEXINGZHUANGJUNYINGXIANGCEDING,ZHUODUYUXUANFUWUGUTIDEGUANXISHISUIJI DE。DUIYUXIAOYURUOGANWEIMIDEWEILI,ZHUODUBINGBUNENGFANYING。

      ZAIMOFACHULIZHONG,JINGMIDEWEIJIEGOU,JIELIUFENZIJISHENZHILIZIJIDEWEILI,YONGZHUODULAIFANYINGSHUIZHIMINGXIANSHIBUJINGQUEDE。WEILEYUCEYUANSHUIWURANDEQINGXIANG,KAIFALESDIZHISHIYAN。 

      SDIZHIZHUYAOYONGYUJIANCESHUIZHONGJIAOTIHEXUANFUWUDENGWEILIDEDUOSHAO,SHIBIAOZHENGXITONGJINSHUISHUIZHIDEZHONGYAOZHIBIAO。 SDIZHIDEQUEDINGFANGFAYIBANSHIYONGKONGJINGWEI0.45μmWEIKONGLVMOZAI0.21MPaHENGDINGSHUILIUYASHUILIXIA,SHOUXIANJILUTONGSHUIKAISHILVGUO500mlSHUIYANGSUOXUDESHIJIANt0,RANHOUZAIXIANG TONGTIAOJIANXIAJIXUTONGSHUI15min,ZAICIJILULVGUO500ml SHUIYANGSUOXUSHIJIANt15 ,RANHOUGENJUXIASHIJISUAN:SDI=(1-t0/t15)×100/15 SHUIZHONGSDIDEZHIDEDAXIAODAZHIKEFANYINGJIAOTIWURANCHENGDU。JINGSHUIDESDI<3 ,DIBIAOSHUISDIZAI5YISHANG,SDIJIXIANZHIWEI 6.66 …… ,JIXUJINXINGYUCHULI。

       超滤技术对SDI值的降低最为有效,经中空纤维超滤膜处理水的 SDI=0 ,但当 SDI 过大时,特别是较大颗粒对中空纤维超滤膜有严重的污染,在超滤工艺中,必须进行预处理,即采用石英砂活性炭或装有多种滤料的过滤器过滤,至于采取何种处 理工艺尚无固定的模式,这是因为供水来源不同,因而预处理方法也各异。

      例如,对于具有较低浊度的自来水或地下水,采用5~10μm的精密过滤器(如蜂房式、熔喷式及PE烧结管等),一般可降低到5左右。在精密过滤器之前,还必须投加絮凝剂和放置双层或多层介质过滤器过滤,一般情况下,过滤速度不超过10m/h ,以7~8m/h 为宜,滤水速度越慢,过滤水质量越好。    


C 、XUANFUWUHEJIAOTIWUZHIDEQUCHU:

      DUIYULIJING5μmYISHANGDEZAZHI,KEYIXUANYONG5μmGUOLVJINGDUDELVQIQUCHU,DANDUIYU0.3 ~5μmJIANDEWEIXIKELIHEJIAOTI,LIYONGSHANGSHUCHANGGUIDEGUOLVJISHUHENNANQUCHU。SUIRANCHAOLVDUIZHEIXIEWEILIHEJIAOTIYOUJUEDUIDEQUCHUZUOYONG,DANDUIZHONGKONGXIANWEICHAOLVMODEWEIHAISHIJIWEIYANZHONGDE。TEBIESHIJIAOTILIZIDAIYOUDIANHE,SHIWUZHIFENZIHELIZIDEJUHETI,JIAOTISUOYINENGZAISHUIZHONGWENDINGCUNZAI,ZHUYAOSHITONGXINGDIANHEDEJIAOTILIZIXIANGHUPAICHIDEJIEGUO。XIANGYUANSHUIZHONGJIARUYUJIAOTILIZIDIANXINGXIANGFANDE HEDIANWUZHI(XUNINGJI)YIDAPOJIAOTILIZIDEWENDINGXING,SHIDAIHEDIANDEJIAOTILIZIZHONGHECHENGDIANZHONGXINGERSHIFENSANDEJIAOTILIZININGJUCHENGDADETUANKUAI,ERHOULIYONGGUOLVHUOCHENJIANGBIANKEYIBIJIAORONGYIQUCHU。 CHANGYONGDEXUNINGJIYOUWUJIDIANJIEZHI,RULIUSUANLV、JUHELVHUALV、LIUSUANYATIEHELVHUATIE。YOUJIXUNINGJIRUJUBINGXIXIANAN、JUBINGXISUANNA、JUYIXIYAANDENG。YOUYUYOUJIXUNINGJIGAOFENZIJUHEWUNENG TONGGUOZHONGHEJIAOLIBIAOMIANDIANHE,XINGCHENGQINGJIANHE “ DAQIAO ” SHININGJUCHENJIANGZAIDUANSHIJIANNEIWANCHENG,CONGERSHISHUIZHIDEDAOJIAODAGAISHAN,GUJINNIANLAIGAOFENZIXUNINGJIYOUQUDAIWUJIXUNINGJIDEQUSHI。

     在絮凝剂加入的同时,可加入助凝剂,如PH调节剂石灰、碳酸钠、氧化剂氯和漂白粉,加固剂水下班及吸附剂聚丙稀酰胺等,提高混凝效果。--超滤水装置,超滤系统,UF超滤水处理设备,超滤设备厂家

絮凝剂常配制成水溶液,利用计量泵加入,也可使用安装在供水管道上的喷射器直接将其只入水处理系统


万人斗地主 D 、KERONGXINGYOUJIWUDEQUCHU:

     KERONGXINGYOUJIWUYONGXUNINGCHENJIANG、DUOJIEZHIGUOLVYIJICHAOLVJUNWUFACHEDIQUCHU。MUQIANDUOCAIYONGYANGHUAFAHUOZHEXIFUFA。

( 1 )YANGHUAFA   LIYONGLVHUOCILVSUANNA(NaClO)JINXINGYANGHUA,DUICHUQUKERONGXINGYOUJIWUXIAOGUOBIJIAOHAO,LINGWAICHOUYANG(O3)HEGAOMENGSUANJIA(KMnO4)YESHIBIJIAOHAODEYANGHUAJI,DANCHENGBENLVEGAO。

( 2 )XIFUFA   LIYONGHUOXINGTANHUODAKONGXIFUSHUZHIKEYIYOUXIAOCHUQUKERONGXINGYOUJIWU。DANDUIYUNANYIXIFUDECHUN、FENDENGRENGXUCAIYONGYANGHUAFACHULI。


E 、GONGSHUISHUIZHIDIAOZHENG:

万人斗地主 ( 1 )GONGSHUIWENDUDEDIAOZHENG

万人斗地主 CHAOLVMOTOUSHUIXINGNENGDEFAHUIYUWENDUGAODIYOUZHIJIEDEGUANXI,CHAOLVMOZUJIANBIAODINGDETOUSHUISULVYIBANSHIYONGCHUNSHUIZAI25℃TIAOJIANXIACESHIDE,CHAOLVMODETOUSHUISULVYUWENDUCHENGZHENGBI,WENDUXI SHUYUEWEI0.02/1℃,JIWENDUMEISHENGGAO1℃,TOUSHUISULVYUEXIANGYINGZENGJIA2.0%。YINCIDANGGONGSHUIWENDUJIAODISHI(RU<5℃),KECAIYONGMOUZHONGSHENGWENCUOSHI,SHIQIZAIJIAOGAOWENDUXIAYUNXING, YITIGAOGONGZUOXIAOLV。DANDANGWENDUGUOGAOSHI,TONGYANGDUIMOBULI,HUIDAOZHIMOXINGNENGDEBIANHUA,DUICI,KECAIYONGLENGQUECUOSHI,JIANGDIGONGSHUIWENDU。

( 2 )GONGSHUIPHZHIDEDIAOZHENG

YONGBUTONGCAILIAOZHICHENGDECHAOLVMODUI PH ZHIDESHIYINGFANWEIBUTONG,LIRUCUSUANXIANWEISUSHIHEpH=4~6,PANHEPVDFDENGMO,KEZAIPH=2~12DEFANWEINEISHIYONG,RUGUOJINSHUICHAOGUOSHIYONGFANWEI,XUYAOJIAYIDIAOZHENG,MUQIANCHANGYONGDEPHDIAOJIEJIZHUYAOYOUSUAN(HClHEH2SO4)DENGHEJIAN(NaOHDENG)。

万人斗地主 YOUYURONGYEZHONGWUJIYANKEYITOUGUOCHAOLVMO,BUCUNZAIWUJIYANDENONGDUJIHUAHEJIEGOUWENTI,YINCIZAIYUCHULISHUIZHIDIAOZHENGGUOCHENGZHONGYIBANBUKAOLVTAMENDUIMODEYINGXIANG,ERZHONGDIANFANGFANDESHIJIAOZHICENGDESHENGCHENG、MOWURANHEDUSAIDEWENTI。


2  CAOZUOCANSHU

ZHENGQUEDEZHANGWOHEZHIXINGCAOZUOCANSHUDUICHAOLVXITONGDEZHANGQIHEWENDINGYUNXINGSHIJIWEIZHONGYAODE,CAOZUOCANSHUYIBANZHUYAOBAOKUO:LIUSU、YALI、YALIJIANG、NONGSHUIPAIFANGLIANG、HUISHOUBIHEWENDU。

A 、LIUSU:

流速是指原液(供给水)在膜表面上的流动的线速度,是超滤系统中的超滤一项重要操作参数。流速较大时,不但造成能量的浪费和产生过大的压力降而且加 速超滤膜分裂性能的衰退。反之,如果流速较小,截留物在膜表面形成的边界层厚度增大,引起浓度极化现象,既影响了透水速率,又影响了透水质量。最佳流速是 根据实验来确定的。中空纤维超滤膜,在进水压力维持在0.2MPa以下时,内压膜的流速仅为0.1m/s,该流速的流型处在完全层流状态。外压膜可获得较大的流速。毛细管型超滤膜,当毛细管直径达3mm时,其流速可适当提高,对减少浓缩边界层有利。必须指出两方面问题,其一是流速不能任意确定,由进口压力 与原液流量有关,其二是对于中空纤维或毛细管膜而言,流速在进口端是不一致的,当浓缩水流量为原液的10%时,出口端流速近似为进口端的10%,此外提高 压力增加了透过水量,对流速的提高供献极微。因此增加毛细管直径,适当提高浓缩水排量(回流量),可以使流速获得提高,特别是在超滤浓缩过程中,如电泳漆 的回收时可有效提高其超滤速率。在允许的压力范围内,提高供给水量,选择最高流速,有利于中空纤维超滤膜性能的保证。

B 、YALIHEYALIJIANG :

ZHONGKONGXIANWEICHAOLVMODEGONGZUOYALIFANWEIWEI0.1~0.6MPa ,SHIFANZHIZAICHAOLVDEDINGYIYUNEI,CHULIRONGYETONGCHANGSUOSHIYONGDEGONGZUOYALI。FENLIBUTONGFENZILIANGDEWUZHI,XUYAOXUANYONGXIANGYINGJIELIUFENZILIANGDECHAOLVMO,ZECAOZUOYALIYEYOUSUOBUTONG。YIBANSUQIAOZHONGKONGXIANWEINEIYAMO,WAIQIAONAIYAQIANGDUXIAOYU0.3MPa,ZHONGKONGXIANWEINAIYAQIANGDUYIBANYEDIYU0.3MPa,YINERGONGZUOYALIYINGDIYU0.2MPa,ERMODELIANGCEYACHAYINGBUDAYU 0.1MPa。WAIYAZHONGKONGXIANWEICHAOLVMONAIYAQIANGDUKEDA0.6MPa,DANDUIYUSUQIAOWAIYAMOZUJIAN,QIGONGZUOYALIYIWEI0.2MPa。BIXUZHICHU,YOUYUNEIYAMOZHIJINGJIAODA,DANGYONGZUO WAIYAMOSHI,YIYUYABIANBINGZAIZHANJIECHUQIEDUAN,YINQISUNHUAI,YINCINEIWAIYAMOBUNENGTONGYONG。

DANGXUYAOCHAOLVYEJUYOUYIDINGYALIYIGONGXIAYIGONGXUSHIYONGSHI,YINGCAIYONGBUXIUGANGWAIQIAOCHAOLVMOZUJIAN,GAIZHONGKONGXIANWEICHAOLVMOZUJIAN,SHIYONGYALIDADAO0.6MPa ,ERTIGONGCHAOLVYEDEYALIKEDA30mSHUIZHU,JI0.3MPaYAQIANG,DANBIXUBAOCHIZHONGKONGXIANWEICHAOLVMONEIWAILIANGCEYACHABUDAYU0.3MPa 。

ZAIXUANZEGONGZUOYALISHICHUGENJUMOJIWAIQIAONAIYAQIANGDUWEIYIJUWAI,BIXUKAOLVMODEYAMIXING,JIMODENAIWURANNENGLI,YALIYUEGAOTOUSHUILIANGYUEDA,XIANGYINGBEIJIELIUDEWUZHIZAIMOBIAOMIANJIJUYUEDUO,ZULIYUEDA,HUIYINQITOUSHUISULVDESHUAIJIAN。CIWAIJINRUMOWEIKONGZHONGDEWEILIYEYIYUDUSAITONGDAO。ZONGZHI,ZAIKENENGDEQINGKUANGXIA,XUANZEJIAODIGONGZUOYALI,DUIMOXINGNENGDECHONGFENFAHUISHIYOULIDE。

万人斗地主 ZHONGKONGXIANWEICHAOLVMOZUJIANDEYALIJIANG,SHIZHIYUANYEJINKOUCHUYALIYUNONGSUOYECHUKOUCHUYALIZHICHA。YALIJIANGYUGONGSHUILIANG,LIUSUJINONGSUOSHUIPAIFANGLIANGYOUMIQIEGUANXI。TEBIEDUIYUNEIYAXINGZHONGKONGXIANWEIHUOMAOXIGUANXINGCHAOLVMO,YANZHESHUILIUFANGXIANGMOBIAOMIANDELIUSUJIYALISHIZHUJIANBIANHUADE。GONGSHUILIANG,LIUSUJINONGSUOSHUIPAILIANGYUEDA,ZEYALIJIANGYUEDA,XINGCHENGXIAYOUMOBIAOMIANDEYALIBUNENGDADAOSUOXUDEGONGZUOYALI。MOZUJIANDEZONGDECHANSHUI LIANGHUISHOUDAOYIDINGYINGXIANG。ZAISHIJIYINGYONGZHONG,YINGJINLIANGKONGZHIYALIJIANGZHIBUYAOGUODA,SUIZHEYUNZHUANSHIJIANYANZHANG,YOUYUWUGOUJILEIERZENGJIALESHUILIUDEZULI,SHIYALIJIANGZENGDA,DANGYALIJIANGGAOCHUCHUSHIZHI 0.05MPaSHIYINGDANGJINXINGQINGXI,SHUTONGSHUILU。

万人斗地主 C 、HUISHOUBIHENONGSUOSHUIPAIFANGLIANG:

超滤系统中,回收比与浓缩水排放量是一对相互制约的因素。回收比是指透过水量与供给量之比率,浓缩水排放量是指未透过膜而排出的水量。因为供给水 量等于浓缩水与透过水量之和,所以如果浓缩水排放量大,回收比较小。为了保证超滤系统的正常运行,应规定组件的最小浓缩水排放量及最大回收比。在一般水处 理工程中,中空纤维超滤膜组件回收比约为50~90%。其选择根据为进料液的组成及状态,即能被截留的物质的多少,在膜表面形成的污垢层厚度,及对透过水 量的影响等多种因素决定回收比。在多数情况下,也可以采用较小的回收比操作,而将浓缩液排放回流入原液系统,用加大循环量来减少污垢层的厚度,从而提高透 水速率,有时并不提高单位产水量的能耗。

D 、GONGZUOWENDU:

万人斗地主 CHAOLVMODETOUSHUINENGLISUIZHEWENDUDESHENGGAOERZENGDA,YIBANSHUIRONGYEQIZHANDUSUIZHEWENDUERJIANGDI,CONGERJIANGDILELIUDONGDEZULI,XIANGYINGTIGAOLETOUSHUISULV。ZAIGONGCHENGSHEJIZHONGYINGKAOLVGONGZUOXIANCHANG GONGJIYEDESHIJIWENDU。TEBIESHIJIJIEDEBIANHUA,DANGWENDUGUODISHIYINGKAOLVWENDUDEDIAOJIE,FOUZESUIZHEWENDUDEBIANHUAQITOUSHUILVYOUKENENGBIANHUAFUDUZAI50%ZUOYOU,CIWAIGUOGAODEWENDUYIJIANGYINGXIANGMO DEXINGNENG。TONGCHANGQINGKUANGXIAZHONGKONGXIANWEICHAOLVMODEGONGZUOWENDUYINGZAI25±5℃,XUYAOZAIJIAOGAOWENDUZHUANGTAIXIAGONGZUOZEKEXUANYONGNAIGAOWENMOCAILIAOJIWAIQIAOCAILIAO。 


相关搜索:超滤膜的特点及应用    矿泉水设备原理及工艺说明    超滤系统的物理清洗方法   

 


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